The goal of the project is to understand the genomic basis of adaptation in plants using whole-genome resequencing and whole-genome methylation sequencing. The goals of the project are to understand i) How different evolutionary forces have shaped patterns of nucleotide polymorphism across the genome of perennial and ourcrossing. Areas of interest include identifying genomic regions that have been the target of recent positive selection (selective sweeps) and genomic regions of high population differentiation which could signify regions which are targets of diversifying selection across species range. ii) Study the extent if structural variation, such as copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV). Recent data suggest that the genome of a species can be subdivided into a core part (present in all individuals) and a dispensable part (absent in at least one individual) (Marroni et al. 2014). iii) Develop genetic resources (SNPs and copy number variants) that can be used in downstream applications such as genomics-based breeding efforts that are currently being developed for a number of crop species. iv) To understand how patterns of DNA methylation varies across individuals and how this affects gene expression as well as phenotypic traits involved in adaptation.