An understanding of the ecological and genetic mechanisms governing plant adaptation to environmental conditions is of fundamental interest in evolutionary biology, but also for meeting the challenges of global change in applied fields such as conservation biology and plant breeding. A comprehensive understanding of adaptation requires ecological studies identifying the factors that contribute to divergent selection, coupled with genetic studies that investigate the genetic architecture of adaptive traits. Studies of this kind ultimately offer the opportunity to link the ecological factors that contribute to divergent natural selection to the genetic mechanism of adaptive evolution, but are still rare. In this project, we will use genomic data generated at SciLifeLab for the herb Primula farinosa to produce a reference genome and to determine the genetic basis of two key floral traits influencing interactions with mutualists and antagonists, and mating patterns in plant populations. In addition, the project will produce genomic resources that will be used to examine the effects of floral traits on male reproductive success and to unravel the genetic basis of adaptation to climate. The rosette-forming, short-lived, perennial and self-incompatible herb P. farinosa is ideally suited for these studies as it is dimorphic for floral display (scape length), and in addition distylous, which means that mating types can be identified based on flower morphology. Moreover, the PI has conducted long-term field studies of the species examining how interactions with pollinators, grazers and seed predators influence selection on floral display and the genetic composition of natural populations.