Within evolutionary biology, one of the key questions is to what extent climate change affects the demography and distribution of species. Combining the fields of ancient DNA, phylogeography and conservation genetics permits investigation of how species responded to the impact of past environmental and climatic shifts and (more recent) human influences. This project aims to investigate the recolonisation of mammalian species in Scandinavia subsequent to the retreat of the Fennoscandian ice sheet during the transition from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene, and possible human impacts, which are debated to have heavily shaped the populations history. To address this, I will generate and analyse whole mitochondrial and nuclear genomes data from modern, historical and ancient individuals of Scandinavian mammals, such as Norwegian lemmings, Brown bears and moose. During the project I examine how the postglacial expansion and more recent human impacts have shaped the demographic history and genetic variation of Scandinavian mammals, investigate phylogenetic relationships, and analyse the present-day population structure with possible inbreeding and gene flow events.